Discussion & Research Questions

In order to pass this course, you are required to demonstrate a knowledge of US geography which shaped and influenced the Civil War. Therefore, you will have to pass a map test, given in class at the same time as UNIT EXAM #1,which will ask you to locate twenty of the following items on an outline map of the United States. You must score 16 correct out of 20 to pass the test. You may take the map test as many times as are necessary to pass the test but YOU MUST PASS THE MAP TEST BY THE MID-SEMESTER POINT IN ORDER TO PASS THE COURSE. Atlas maps are found inside the front and rear coverpages in the textbook to help you study for the map test.
You must be able to locate the following on a map:

All 33 states by nameFlorida Keys
CanadaChesapeake Bay
MexicoLong Island
Atlantic OceanWashington, DC
Pacific OceanNew York City
Gulf of MexicoPhiladelphia
Ohio RiverRichmond
Mississippi RiverWilmington, NC
Missouri RiverCharleston, SC
Appalachian MountainsAtlanta
James RiverNew Orleans
Bull RunSeven Days
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold HarborPetersburg
Forts Henry & DonelsonShiloh
ChattanoogaMarch to the Sea

1. Explain the Compromise of 1820.
2. Discuss the significance of the Mexican War in the slavery debate.
3. Enumerate the parts of the Compromise of 1850.
4. Explain the political significance of the Compromise of 1850.
5. Describe the results of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
6. Explain the importance of the election of 1856.
7. Discuss the Dred Scott decision.
8. Explain the impact of the Lincoln-Douglas debates.
9. Discuss the effects of John Brown's raid in 1859.
10. Explain the initial break-up of the Democratic convention.
11. Name the important planks of the Republican party platform in 1860.
12. List the 1860 Presidential candidates.
13. Explain the outcome of the election of 1860.
14. Discuss the secession movement.
15. Discuss the launching of the Confederacy.
16. Explain the Fort Sumter crisis.

Chapter 10
1. Explain the significance of the firing on Fort Sumter.
2. List the states that seceded after Fort Sumter.
3. Name the prominent Tennessee loyalists.
4. Explain the situation in Washington in April 1861.
5. Detail why Maryland rejected secession.
6. List Lincoln's reaction to ex parte Merryman.
7. Tell why Delaware failed to secede.
8. Explain Kentucky's decision to remain in the Union.
9. Name Missouri's leading secessionist supporters.
10. Name Missouri's leading federal supporters.
11. Describe the military action in Missouri in 1861.
12. Explain the type of warfare common to southern Missouri.
13. Name the Federal commander in West Virginia.
14. Name the Confederate commander in West Virginia.

Chapter 11
1. Explain the condition of the US Army in 1860-61.
2. Explain the condition of the US Navy in 1860-61.
3. List the steps Lincoln took in May & June 1861 to increase troops.
4. Tell how officers in volunteer regiments were selected.
5. Explain why Cameron was replaced as Secretary of War.
6. Explain how the Confederate Congress raised an army.
7. Name the basic unit of the armies.
8. Explain the organization of the armies.
9. Tell how discipline was in both armies.
10. Explain how generals were selected.
11. Discuss the Confederate naval situation in 1861.
12. Describe the Confederate naval innovations.
13. Describe the Union Navy by 1865.
14. Explain why the blockade was effective.
15. Name the important naval conquest in fall 1861.
16. Discuss the outcome of the Monitor-Merrimac conflict.
17. Explain the effectiveness of the blockade.

Chapter 12
1. Describe why the Civil War was the first modern war.
2. List the numbers of men who fought for each side.
3. Explain the Confederate conscription system.
4. Explain constitutional opposition to the draft.
5. List the important Union advantages in the war.
6. List the important Confederate advantages in the war.
7. Name the important Confederate guerrillas.
8. Explain why southerners initially were better cavalrymen.
9. Name the branch where southerners had their greatest advantage.
10. Explain this advantage.
11. Discuss the functions of cavalry.
12. Explain the new cavalry tactics of the war.
13. Name the branch where northerners had their greatest advantage.
14. Explain this advantage.
15. List the important artillery projectiles.
16. Name the most important branch of the armies.
17. Explain the important technological changes in infantry weapons.
18. Discuss the tactical significance of this development.
19. Explain why the US Ordnance Bureau didn't adopt breechloader.
20. Name the Confederate Chief of Ordnance.
21. List the least efficient Confederate bureaus.
22. Explain the most serious deficiency of the Confederate economy.
23. List the ways the Confederates financed the war.
24. Describe the inflationary forces in the Confederate economy.
25. Explain how the Union financed the war.

Chapter 13
1. Explain the effect of making Richmond the capital of the CSA.
2. Discuss Scott's Anaconda Plan.
3. Explain McDowell's Plan.
4. Discuss the problems with McDowell's Plan.
5. Explain the turning points of 1st Bull Run.
6. List the results of 1st Bull Run.
7. Name the new Union commander after 1st Bull Run.
8. Explain McClellan's accomplishments in 1861.
9. Discuss McClellan's major shortcomings.
10. Explain congressional opposition to McClellan.
11. Discuss the aftermath of the Battle of Ball's Bluff.
12. Explain why the CSA didn't get diplomatic recognition from Fr & Br.
13. Name the basis of Confederate foreign policy.
14. Explain why the Confederate cotton embargo failed to work.
15. Explain the significance of the blockade legally.
16. Describe the "Trent" affair.

Chapter 14
1. Explain the Confederate position in the western theater.
2. Name Grant's and Foote's first victory.
3. Explain the significance of the Fort Henry conflict.
4. List the Confederate commanders at Fort Donelson.
5. Explain the results of the fall of Fort Donelson.
6. Discuss General Albert Sidney Johnston's strategy.
7. Discuss the errors in Union strategy prior to Shiloh.
8. Explain what saved Federal forces the first day at Shiloh.
9. Discuss the results of the second day at Shiloh.
10. List other Union victories in the Spring of 1862 in the west.
11. Name the conqueror of New Orleans.
12. Explain how New Orleans was captured.
13. Discuss the significance of the fall of New Orleans.
14. Explain Union inaction after Shiloh.

Chapter 15
1. Explain McClellan's plan for attacking Richmond.
2. Discuss why Lincoln was not happy with McClellan's plan.
3. Explain the significance of Jackson's attack at Kernstown.
4. Explain McClellan's Peninsula Campaign.
5. Discuss the significance of Jackson's Valley Campaign.
6. Name the most important aspect of Seven Pines.
7. Explain what the Battle of Malvern Hill showed.
8. Explain the significance of Seven Days.
9. Enumerate Pope's shortcomings.
10. Name the new Union General-in-Chief after McClellan.
11. Explain Pope's defeat at 2nd Bull Run.
12. Name the commander of the Army of the Potomac after 2nd Bull Run.

Chapter 16
1. Enumerate Lincoln's first war policy.
2. Explain Lincoln's administrative style.
3. Explain Lincoln's relationship with Congress.
4. Name the concept holding the North together.
5. Discuss the slavery issue for Lincoln in 1861.
6. Explain the abolitionists' arguments.
7. Name the first anti-slavery act in 1861.
8. Explain the Republican Party and the issue of slavery.
9. Name the prominent Republican Radicals.
10. Detail Congress' actions in relation to slaves.
11. Explain Lincoln's border state slavery proposal.
12. Name the wings of the Democratic Party.
13. Name the organization used to foster anti-war sentiment in the North.
14. Name the foremost Copperhead.
15. Explain Lincoln's initial position on colonization of ex-slaves.

Chapter 17
1. Explain the reasons for Lee's invasion of the North.
2. Name an unexpected McClellan advantage.
3. Explain Jackson's initial goal in this invasion.
4. Explain McClellan's principal weakness.
5. Discuss the results of the Battle of Antietam.
6. Explain the Confederate objectives in invading Kentucky.
7. Detail the results of the Battle of Perryville.
8. Explain Lincoln's justification of the Emancipation Proclamation.
9. Detail the provisions of the Emancipation Proclamation.
10. Discuss Lincoln's attitudes toward civil liberties.
11. Name the party that gained seats in northern elections in 1862.
12. Name the party that still controlled the U.S. government after 1862.
13. Name when the Emancipation Proclamation took effect.
14. Explain the real purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation.
15. Discuss why McClellan was removed from command.
16. Name McClellan's successor.
17. Explain the turning points of European recognition of the Confederacy.

Learning Objectives Unit 3

Chapter 18
1. Name McClellan's successor as commander of the Army of the Potomac.
2. Describe the Federal problems in the Battle of Fredericksburg.
3. Name the groups trying to undermine Lincoln in the winter of 1862.
4. Explain the Union strategy to take Vicksburg in late 1862.
5. Discuss Grant's failure in late 1862 to take Vicksburg.
6. Describe the situation in central Tennessee in late 1862.
7. Explain the Battle of Stone's River.
8. Discuss Grant's problems in taking Vicksburg.
9. Describe the Army-Navy attempt to take Vicksburg.
10. Explain Grant's Spring 1863 plan to take Vicksburg.
11. Discuss the Confederate problems around Vicksburg.
12. Describe the results of Grant's May assaults on Vicksburg.
13. Name Burnside's successor as commander of the Army of the Potomac.
14. Discuss Hooker's initial administrative successes.
15. Describe Hooker's plan to attack Lee.
16. Describe Lee's reaction to Hooker's attack.
17. Explain the results of Jackson's flank attack.
18. Describe Lee's problem on May 3, 1863.
19. Discuss the culmination of the Battle of Chancellorsville.
20. Name the biggest loss for the Confederates at Chancellorsville.

Chapter 19
1. Describe Confederate problems after Chancellorsville.
2. List the reasons behind Lee's invasion of the North.
3. Name Hooker's successor as commander of the Army of the Potomac.
4. Discuss Lee's problem on his march North.
5. Explain the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg.
6. Describe how the Confederates lost the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1st.
7. Explain Longstreet's plan for July 2.
8. Describe Lee's plan for July 2.
9. Explain what actually happened July 2.
10. Describe Lee's plan for July 3.
11. Describe the events of July 3.
12. Explain the aftermath of the Battle of Gettysburg.
13. Discuss the Confederate situation at Vicksburg.
14. Discuss the end at Vicksburg.
15. Explain what happened at Port Hudson.
16. Explain the implications of the results of Gettysburg & Vicksburg.
17. Explain Rosecran's campaign in Tennessee.
18. Discuss the Battle of Chickamauga.
19. Describe the Confederate reaction to Chickamauga.
20. Describe the Union reaction to Chickamauga.
21. Discuss the Battle of Chattanooga.
22. Explain the end of Confederate hopes for diplomatic recognition.

Chapter 20
1. Describe Vallandigham's campaign charges.
2. Discuss Northern political developments in 1862-63.
3. Explain how pro-war Northerners countered the Peace Democrats.
4. Trace Vallandigham's fate.
5. Name the service where Blacks always served.
6. Discuss Lincoln's initial position on enlisting Black soldiers.
7. Explain Lincoln's later position on enlisting Black soldiers.
8. List the discrimination encountered by Black soldiers.
9. Explain the casualty patterns of Black soldiers.
10. Discuss the provisions of the North's Enrollment Act of March 3, 1863.
11. Describe how volunteering was stimulated.
12. Explain the evils of the Enrollment Act.
13. Discuss the effectiveness of the Union draft.
14. Name the largest draft riot in the North.
15. Discuss the 1863 election results.
16. Describe the Confederate Congress in terms of effectiveness.
17. Describe the Confederate Cabinet.
18. Detail Davis' shortcomings.
19. Explain the rise of opposition to Davis.
20. Name the leaders of the opposition to Davis.
21. Explain the characteristics of Confederate opposition.

Chapter 21
1. Discuss Northern agriculture during the Civil War.
2. Discuss Northern water transportation in the Civil War.
3. Discuss Northern railroads in the Civil War.
4. Explain Northern industrial growth in the Civil War.
5. Explain the most important result of Civil War economic growth.
6. List Northern non-military wartime legislation.
7. Explain Southern economic discontent.
8. Explain the results of the Impressment Act of 1863.
9. Explain why contraband trade flourished.
10. Discuss the reasons the North allowed trade in conquered areas.
11. Name the principal killer of Civil War soldiers.
12. Explain the major diseases that hit both armies.
13. Describe Civil War medical care.
14. Name the innovations in medicine during the Civil War.
15. Name the capacity in which women were finally accepted for war.

Chapter 22
1. Discuss Lincoln's "Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction".
2. Explain the rationale behind this Proclamation.
3. Discuss the Republican problem with wartime emancipation.
4. Describe how the loyal slave states ended slavery.
5. Describe how the Lincoln governments of LA, ARK, & Tenn ended slavery.
6. Explain the Union wartime plan for dealing with freedmen.
7. Describe how freedmen were used during the Civil War.
8. Discuss why land was not given to freedmen by the government.
9. Describe Freedmen's education.
10. Explain Lincoln's reconstruction theory.
11. Explain the Radical Republicans' reconstruction theory.
12. Discuss the Wade-Davis Bill.
13. Describe the fate of the Wade-Davis Bill.
14. Name Lincoln's Republican rivals in 1864.

Chapter 23
1. Describe military conditions in summer 1864.
2. Explain Grant's unified strategy to attack the Confederacy.
3. Discuss Banks' campaign.
4. Discuss Butler's campaign.
5. Discuss Sigel's campaign.
6. Describe Grant's Wilderness campaign.
7. Describe Grant's Spottsylvania campaign.
8. Describe Grant's Cold Harbor campaign.
9. Describe Grant's Petersburg campaign.
10. Explain the Battle of the Crater.
11. Discuss the Shenandoah Valley campaign after Sigel's defeat.
12. Explain the strategy of the Atlanta campaign.
13. List Sherman's command organization.
14. Explain Sherman's basic strategy.
15. Name the battle that was an exception to this strategy.
16. Explain why Davis removed Joe Johnston from command.
17. Discuss Hood's campaign at Atlanta.

Chapter 24
1. Discuss the Democratic presidential nomination process.
2. Discuss the Republican presidential nomination process.
3. Explain the Battle of Mobile Bay.
4. Explain the fall of Atlanta.
5. Describe Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley campaign.
6. Discuss Republican election campaign tactics on 1864.
7. List the Confederate-Copperhead plots.
8. Explain the high mortality rate for Northern POWs.
9. Discuss the exchange cartel for POWs.
10. Explain why the exchange cartel for POWs collapsed.
11. Discuss why the North refused to re-open exchanges in August 1864.
12. Explain the final results of the POW exchange.
13. Describe the 1864 presidential election in terms of ideas.
14. Discuss the results of the 1864 presidential election.

Chapter 25
1. Discuss Sherman's plans after Atlanta.
2. Explain Hood's strategy after Atlanta.
3. Discuss Sherman's reaction to Hood's strategy.
4. Describe Hood's Tennessee campaign.
5. Explain the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment.
6. Explain the significance of the fall of Fort Fisher.
7. Discuss why the February 1865 peace negotiations failed.
8. Explain Sherman's plans after Savannah.
9. Name the Confederate commander opposing Sherman in NC.
10. Explain the destruction of Confederate war resources.
11. Discuss Confederate plans to stave-off defeat.
12. Name Lee's last offensive operation.
13. Explain Grant's reaction to this last Confederate assault.
14. Discuss the fate of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.
15. Explain the conspiracy to kill Lincoln.
16. Discuss the surrender terms Sherman offered Joe Johnston.
17. Explain why Sherman's terms were disallowed.
18. Discuss the final surrender terms of Sherman.
19. List the two feared consequences of the war that did not materialize.
20. List the most profound impacts of the Civil War.

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